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No 49 March 1, 1959 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife, 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTER-DEPARTMENTAL INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Hon. J. W, Spoon.r F - A « MacDougall 

Mini.fr De P uf y Mlni,ter 



table of contents 

No. 49 November, 1959 



Page 

Luther Marsh Game Bag Census, October 3, 1959. 

- by R. E. Mason 1 

Waterfowl Bag Check, Tweed District, September 19, 1959. 

- by W. W. Bittle 3 

Report on Opening Day of the Duck Hunting Season, 1959 
at Holland Marsh. 

- by R. H. Trotter and A. A. Wainio £ 

Sharp-tailed Grouse Report, Fort Frances District, 

Winter and Spring, 1959. - by J. Farr 13 

Considerations Concerning a Wetland Inventory for 

Southern Ontario. - by J. B. Dawson 16 

Address to Ontario Game Breeders Association, July 15, 

1959. - by Dr. F. W. Remmler 20 

Census for Cottontail Rabbits, Lake Huron District, 

1953-59. - by R. E. Mason 25 

Cottontail Index - Pelee Island, 1953-59. 

- by L. J. Stock 28 

The Size, Rate of Growth and Longevity of the Black 
Bear ( Ursus americanus americanus ) . 

- by C. W. Douglas 29 

Moose Browse Survey - Gogama District, 1959. 

- by G. E. Vozeh and A. Zimmerman 39 



I 



Cont. TABLE OF CONTENTS - 2 - No. 49, November, 1959 



Page 

The 195S/59 Aerial Census of Moose in Ontario. 

- by R. Boultbee 44 

Trap-net Programme on Lake of the Woods. 

- by C. A. Elsey 52 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

LUTHER MARSH GAME BAG CENSUS, 
OCTOBER 3, 1959 

by 
R. E. Mason 



An estimated 1,970 hunters utilized Luther Marsh opening 
day. This estimate was based on a count of automobiles which were 
parked in the immediate vicinity of the marsh between 12.00 noon 
and 2.00 P.M.. The mean number of hunters per car was obtained from 
the six checking stations. The figure of 1,970 hunters should be 
considered minimum as some hunters come to the marsh in time for the 
evening shoot only. 

Six checking stations were operated at access points from 
3.30 P.M. until virtually all hunters had left the marsh. 1,564 
hunters were checked, having hunted 8,622 hours to bag 1,723 ducks, 
or one hunter hunted 4.9 hours to bag 1.1 ducks. Based on the total 
hunter estimate, an estimated 2,170 ducks were shot opening day. 
This does not include crippling loss which is suspected to be high. 
(22% on 4 y 670 ducks in 1958). In addition 294 coots and five Canada 
geese passed through the checking stations. 

Information collected at the checking stations is presented 
in the following tables: 

TABLE ONE - Species Composition, Sex and Age 



Species Ad. Ad. Juv. Juv. Unknown Total 



Mallard 




166 


144 


59 


49 


60 


478 


27.8 


Black 




133 


149 


48 


33 


57 


420 


24.3 


B, W. Teal 




78 


107 


49 


83 


31 


348 


20.1 


G. W. Teal 




32 


44 


14 


20 


6 


116 


6.7 


Redhead 




1 


4 


4 


8 


- 


17 


0.9 


Ruddy 




8 


5 


8 


11 


2 


34 


1.9 


Wood Duck 




14 


4 


2 


— 


- 


20 


1.1 


Gadwall 




1 


1 


3 


- 


4 


9 


0.5 


Ringneck 




3 


5 


4 


17 


4 


33 


1.8 


Bufflehead 




1 


- 


1 


1 


— 


3 


0.1 


Pintail 




6 


10 


3 


13 


2 


34 


1.9 


Scaup 




1 


3 


1 


8 


1 


14 


0.8 


Shoveler 




- 


1 


— 


1 


1 


3 


0.1 


American Widgeon 


(Baldpate) 


7 


8 


5 


4 


4 


28 


1.6 


Merganser 




- 


- 


- 


- 


15 


15 


0.8 


Unidentified 




- 


- 


- 


- 


151 


151 


8.7 



1723 99.1 



TABLE TWO - Sex Ratio Observed 



Species 



Mallard 
Black 

B. W. Teal 
G. W. Teal 



dc$ 



99 



6 J/100 99 



Chi square at 0.05 
Assurrio even Ratio 



225 


193 


116.5 


not sig. 


181 


182 


99.5 


not sig. 


127 


190 


66.9 


sig. 


46 


64 


71.9 


not sig. 



Of the 5 Canada geese shot - 2 were juvenile males 

2 were juvenile females 
1 was adult female 

TABLE THREE - Age Ratio Observed 



S pecies 

Mallard 

Black 

B. W. Teal 



Adult 

310 
232 
185 



Juvenile 



108 

81 

132 



Juv . /Adult 



0.3 
0.4 
1.7 



Black ducks were shot in about the same proportions as other 
years (seven year mean). There was a slight increase in the propor- 
tion of mallards and blue-winged teal and a decrease in green-winged 
teal when compared with the seven year average. Comparing only the 
1958 and 1959 figures, the proportion in the bag of blacks, mallards 
and green-winged teal decreased while blue-winged teal increased from 
8.5 to 20.1%. 

The juvenile per adult ratio for blacks and blue-winged teal 
was considerably below (fewer juveniles) both the mean ratio and 1958 
ratios for those species. Mallards showed a slight increase (more 
juveniles) in both instances. 

Unfortunately, we are not able to say that these age ratios 
reflect current production. Under the frequently harassed conditions 
of a checking station, anal examination is not always possible, and 
it is expected that ducks recorded in the "unknown" column of table 
one may contain a disproportionately high number of juveniles. Large 
magnitude changes where the proportion of "unknown" ducks is small 
may be indicative of current production. 



- 3 - 

WATERFOWL BAG CHECK - TWEED DISTRICT - SEPTEMBER 19, 1959 

by 
W. W. Bittle 



L ocation of Checks - 

Wolfe Island 
Prince Edward County- 
South Central Townships 
North Central Townships 
North Eastern Townships 
Conroy Marsh 



Purpose 

The purpose of the bag check waa to determine the number 
of ducks shot per hunter; the effort and the species in the bag. 
Where possible an age and sex analysis was carried out. 

Low waters in the marshes in the Bay of Quinte-Lake Ontario 
area was the direct result of fewer ducks in what was our most pro- 
ductive marshes in the south. The routine bag check on Prince Edward 
County was hindered by an enforcement problem on the Big Island 
Marsh, as well as low water. 

The normal bag check point at Hay Bay was cancelled in 
favour of a more popular place, Camden (Mud) Lake in Camden Township. 
The check here also included data gathered from points in the surrou- 
nding townships. 

General Remarks 

During the night prior to the opening day, a heavy frost 
blanketed the district with the exception of the islands in Lake 
Ontario. Prince Edward County received a light frost in various 
places. 

The temperature ranged from a low of 27° in the north to a 
high of 59° in the south. 

The cold air mass moved in from the west, but by the time 
the hunters were going into the marshes (approximately 05s00 hours) 
the wind was nil. By mid-morning the wind came from the southwest 
at 10-15 m.p.h. 

Over the most part of the district the sky was clear with 
some heavy fog patches hanging over the waters in certain localities. 



- 4 - 

Shooting started with the first sign of light at approxi- 
mately 05; 50 although at Mud Lake it was reported the shooting 
commenced at 05^30. The intensity of gun fire increased and was at 
its heaviest at 06:10 and remained high until 06s30. From this point 
on firing gradually quieted to spasmodic bursts throughout the 
morning. Occasional bursts continued until just before dark when once 
again the shooting became intense although not in comparison with the 
morning shoot. 

During the early morning on Wolfe Island, flocks of teal 
could be seen almost everywhere. Blacks and mallards were observed 
in lesser numbers and usually at a greater height. Many hunters 
passed up good teal shots, waiting for larger ducks. 

By 09s00 hours teal were still seen but generally in small 
flocks and were decoying for hunters located deep in bays. 

Hunters complained of the early opening and that it had a 
tendency to drive ducks to the south. However, the early opening 
did result in a large kill of teal which normally would not be here 
in such large numbers had the hunt commenced at a later date under 
normal weather conditions. 

Throughout Sunday, teal were observed in all the bays along 
Wolfe Island, coming and going at intervals. Few blacks and mallards 
were observed. 

On Conroy Marsh scarcity of ducks (as compared to other 
years) resulted in a poor shoot. Added to this was the heavy fog 
that hung over the marsh and the noise of night-long party makers 
(would-be duck hunters) with their spirits and fires to ward off the 
cold (and ducks) . 



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The number of cripples lost (92 birds) represents 12$ of 
the total ducks in the bag. 

On Wolfe Island an effort was made to determine an age and 
sex analysis by examination of the cloaca. In some cases the age 
determination in females was assisted by the tail feather method. 

The following table shows a total of 192 ducks that were 
thoroughly examined to give an accurate account of an age and sex 
analysis. 



Blue-winged Teal 

Green-winged Teal 

Black 

Mallard 

Pintail 

American Widgeon (Baldpate) 





6 




2 




Unsexed & 












Adult 


Juvenile 


Adult 


Juvenile 


Unaged 


9 


53 


12 




48 


66 


7 


10 


6 




10 


18 


2 


13 


2 




4 


22 





4 


3 




5 


11 





1 







2 


3 





1 














E xplanation of Duck Check Points 

For the purpose of this report an explanation is felt 
necessary to describe the method used to check hunters during the 
opening day of the duck season for 1959. 

1. Wolfe Island - Officers Saundercook and Bittle. Hunters 
were checked throughout the day as they came from the marshes to catch 
the ferry from the island to the mainland. Between ferry runs, 
hunters were contacted at their various camps throughout the island 
and some cars were stopped on other roads if it were obvious that 

the occupants were hunters. 

2. Prince Edward County - Officers Winters and Warner. As 
previously stated the check was hindered by an enforcement problem 
relating to baiting. This resulted in the seizure of 54 ducks. When 
time permitted hunters were checked on marshes in Hallowell and 
Hillier Townships and at Fish Lake. 

3. South central townships - Officers Ferguson and Page. 
The majority of the check was made at Camden (Mud) Lake in Camden 
Township, Additional hunters were checked in the surrounding townships 
of Portland, Sheffield and Hinchinbrooke. 

4. North central townships - Officers Dornan, Davison and 
Thibadeau. - Townships of Hungerford, Marmora, Madoc, Elzevir, Clarendon 
and South Canonto. Hunters were checked on the marshes and on the 
roads from the marshes. 



- 7 - 



5. North eastern townships - Officers Stewart and Schonauer. 
The marshes in and around Calabogie Lake in Blithfield Township and 
Clyde Forks and Lavant Township. Hunters were checked wherever 
contacted in the marshes or on access roads to the marshes. 

6. Conroy Marsh - Officers Fleguel and Hooton. Hunters 
were contacted on the marsh surrounding the game preserve in Raglan 
Township. 



- s - 

REPORT ON OPENING DAY OF THE DUCK SEASON 
AT HOLLAND MARSH, 1959 

by 
R. H. Trotter and A. A. Wainio 



The Holland Marsh extends from Cook's Bay, the south end 
of Lake Simcoe, along both sides of the Schomberg River to Highway 
11. The heaviest concentration of marsh is found at the south of 
Cook's Bay just at the mouth of the Schomberg River. Since it is a 
favourite area for migrating ducks, large numbers of hunters converge 
on the marsh when the hunting season begins. 

Several years ago the opening time on the first day was a 
half hour before sunrise. While this time was in effect much shooting 
occurred in the dark hours of the early morning long before they were 
allowed to shoot. Many complaints forced the Department to advance 
the opening time to 12 noon. 

Last year a limited number of Fish and Wildlife staff 
prevented us from manning all access points to the marsh with the 
result that many hunters began shooting around 8 a.m.. As a conse- 
quence the Department received much unfavourable publicity and 
criticism. 

This year, in order to have a well supervised opening day 
we planned a complete coverage of the marsh trying to compel the 
hunters to abide by the noon opening time. The Department recruited 
some of the Conservation Officers and many of the regular staff 
from other services - Parks, Timber, (Reforestation) County Forests 
and the Severn River Management Unit, to make a total of 3& Department 
Personnel involved. Along with our own men we had the assistance of 
two R.C.M.P. officers who patrolled Cook's Bay and the Lake. Also, 
the Provincial Police carried out road patrol around the marsh. 

On the afternoon of Friday, October 2, 1959, the day before 
the opening date all Department men involved gathered at the Riverview 
Inn just outside Bradford. At this meeting Mr. Leman and Mr. Trotter 
outlined just how we were going to proceed with the coverage. Earlier 
it had been found that there were 19 access points into the marsh. 
At least one man was to be stationed at each point. Most of these 
points are concession roads leading into the marsh. The marsh was 
divided into four areas with one Conservation Officer in charge of 
each area. Under him would be enough men to look after each access 
point. Each man received a mimeographed sheet (Sheet 1) outlining 
what they were to tell the hunters. Also, they received a supply 
of other sheets (Sheet 2) for distribution among the hunters. This 
second she^t stressed the opening time, closing time and daily bag 
limit. 



- 9 - 



The men stayed over night at the Village Inn in Bradford 
and at the Riverview Inn. After an early breakfast at 4=30 a.m. 
Saturday morning the men were at their stations by 6:00 a.m.. 

It turned out to be a good day for duck hunting. There was 
a light wind and a clear sky in the morning. In the late afternoon 
it turned cloudy and by evening it rained lightly. 

A few hunters arrived at the marsh just before sunrise but 
the situation was explained to them and they refrained from entering 
the marsh until late in the morning. Some men hunted ruffed grouse 
near the marsh and their firing was sometimes mistaken for that of 
duck hunters. Most of the hunters remained in their cars at the access 
points until approximately an hour before opening time. At some 
places the hunters were asked to remain at the checking points until 
11 a.m. and they readily agreed. 

Several shots were fired immediately south of Gilford 
between $ and 9 a.m.. These resulted from ignorance by two hunters 
concerning the opening time. When warned by other hunters they 
proceeded voluntarily to one of the stations to explain that they 
arrived before the officers and had not been cautioned about the 
noon opening time. 

In the northwest corner opposite access point 17 there are 
a number of small ponds surrounded by tall bulrushes. There were 
quite a number of hunters congregated in that area and some shooting 
occurred between 11:30 and 12:00. The cover was so dense that 
officers patrolling in the area were unable to apprehend the violators. 
However, the presence of the officers moving about in the trouble 
area kept the shooting down to a minimum. 

Considering the large number of hunters present there were 
very few violations noted during the day. The seizures and offences 
are tabulated. 

Several shots were fired immediately before 12 noon but 
most of the shooting started at 12 and immediately after., 

The hunters felt very satisfied with the coverage. In the 
evening they readily allowed us to check their bags and take wing 
samples for later identification. 



- 10 - 

Results of Opening Day of Duck Season on Holland Marsh, 1959 . 

JiU.r"l U 01 S >jn9CK6Q o ft S 1 Q 011 Tj o«*o*o«oo*««««o««*09«oao«oo«o«*«« J C J 

Non-resident . . . . 32 

Total number of hours hunted . . ..., •<> 3101.5 

Number of dogs used • 25 

Mallard 49 

Black o co 71 

Pintail 15 

Green-winged Teal 87 

Blue-winged Teal 42 

Wood Duck 20 

Common (Wilson's) Snipe 24 

LOOL •••oyeooo«o»o««o*»*oe«oooooo • • o • a •oo»o*»ooco0 3o«ooooo»o«« MO 

American Widgeon (Baldpate) 5 

Hooded Merganser 6 

Ring-necked Duck 1 

Canvasback 1 

Lesser Scaup 5 

Ruddy Duck 1 

Goose 1 

Unidentified 35 

Lost 130 

Total number of ducks 406 

The total number of hunters checked - 6l5 K 

The number of ducks shot = 406 

The number of ducks per man ■ .66 

The number of man hours per duck = 7.6 

The number of ducks per man hour ■ .13 



1 It must be emphasized that these figures do not represent the total 
number that entered the marsh. A few hunters left by private routes 
along the shores of Cook's Bay and missed being checked. 



Tabulation of Violations Against the Migratory Birds 
Convention Act in Holland Marsh on Opening Day of 
Duck Season - 1959. 

Number of Violations Percentage of Violations 

2 men apprehended for using .22 rifles 1.1$ 

3 men apprehended for chasing ducks in a 

boat 

confiscation of 1 pied-billed grebe 
failure of 1 man to produce a licence. 



- 11 - SHEET NO. 1 

WHEN REPLYING KINDLY QUOTE 
THIS FILE NUMBER 




ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



What to Tell the Hunters 


(1) Ask each hunter to show you his gun licence. If he has a gun 
and does not have a licence take the gun and write down his 
name and address and detain him till the officer in charge 
arrives. 

(2) Tell the hunters that they are not to shoot more than four 
redhead ducks in one day (new regulation this year) • 

(3) Explain to them that guns must be kept encased or dismantled 
till 12 o'clock daylight saving time . Guns wrapped in a coat 
are considered encased. If the bolt is removed from a gun it 
is considered dismantled. 

(4) Keep a count of all hunters you check going in. 

(5) Tell them to be out of the marsh not later than one hour after 
closing time. 

(6) You should explain to the hunters that we will have men checking 
their bag limits when they come out of the marsh. 

(7) Be sure to have your watch synchronized with the other officers 
before you leave and have the hunters set their watches the 
same as yours. 

(8) Tell them again just as they are leaving for the marsh to keep 
those guns encased or dismantled till 12 o'clock. 

NO SHOOTING BEFORE 12 noon D.S.T. 

Advise them that even if they hear shooting they are not to 
start as we will have officers in the marsh who will be 
seizing the guns of any "trigger happy" hunter who opens up 
before 12 o'clock noon D.S.T. . 



- 12 - 



SHEET NO. 2 




WHEN REPLYING KINDLY QUOTE 
THIS FILE NUMBER 



ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



OPENING DAY - DUCK SEASON - 1959 



ATTENTION HUNTERS 



ATTENTION HUNTERS 



OPENING TIME: 



12 o'clock noon, Daylight Saving 
Time - Saturday, October 3, 1959. 



CLOSING TIME: 



7:28 p.m. Daylight Saving Time 
- Saturday, October 3, 1959 
(one-half hour after sunset). 



DAILY BAG LIMIT: 



Ducks, exclusive of mergansers, 
6 of which not more than one 
may be a wood duck and not more 
than 4 may be a canvasback or 
redhead. 



Geese - 5 

Rails, Coots & Gallinules 
Wilson's snipe - 8 
Woodcock - 8 



- 25 



OBSERVE ALL REGULATIONS - FOLLOW SAFETY RULES 



GOOD LUCK, 



GOOD LUCK 



- 13 - 

SHARP-TAILED GROUSE REPORT, FORT FRANCES DISTRICT, 
WINTER AND SPRING, 1959 

by 

J. A. Farr 



During raid-winter and early spring of 1959 some work of an 
investigational nature was carried out on sharp-tailed grouse in the 
Fort Frances District. 

Starting in late February attempts were made to locate 
sharptail coveys and observe them under winter conditions. During 
the period February 9th-March 6th seven field trips were made and 
a total of 92 birds in eight different coveys was observed. Four 
coveys were observed on three separate occasions, and two other coveys 
were observed twice. In all cases the birds* movement appeared con- 
fined to an area of approximately one square mile. During the colder 
days in February (-15° to +10°F) the birds seemed reluctant to feed, 
spending only an hour or two near midday away from their snow roosts. 
With bright sun and warmer weather birds were observed sunning them- 
selves in the trees in the afternoon; although budding seemed to be 
confined mostly to the mornings. The winter was somewhat more severe 
than average but there was no evidence that it caused unusual morta- 
lity. One bird was found dead beneath the snow but there was no 
obvious cause of death as the bird appeared well fleshed and normal 
in every respect. No cases of predation were observed although 
there was evidence in two cases that foxes had flushed coveys from the 
snow. 

Dancing Ground Locations 

Dancing was first observed on March 25th, although sporadic 
dancing had probably been going on for some time previous to this. 
In all, 14 mornings were devoted to dancing ground locations and 
observation. Fifteen dancing grounds were actually located and 
hooting and wooing birds were heard in eleven additional areas 
although the dancing ground was not actually located. Most of the 
dancing grounds were located on slightly elevated open areas, but one 
case of dancing was observed in a large muskeg where plant growth 
was quite thick and two to three feet in height. It seems doubtful 
that this was a regular dancing area as subsequent checks failed to 
show birds using it. 

As early as March 27th, birds were observed perched in trees 
adjacent to open areas where birds were dancing. These may have been 
females. However, birds actually observed on the dancing grounds as 
late as April 20th, appeared to be all males as they all danced. By 
April 27th, some females began to appear on the dancing grounds but 
it seems doubtful that the peak of the dancing season had been reached 
by this date. No observations were made after May 1st, but the peak 
probably occurred during the first week or ten days in May. 



- 14 - 

All dancing grounds located were recorded on a large map 
in the Fish and Wildlife office. Those dancing grounds will form 
a start for future spring census of dancing birds. 

Trapping 

It was impossible to devote sufficient time to sharptail 
trapping using cannon projected net traps. There was some diffi- 
culty in locating accessible dancing grounds with a large enough 
clear area (approximately 50 feet diameter) to be used. 

Only one set was attempted on a large dancing ground with 
from 30 to 40 birds active in a very small area. Only four birds 
were actually trapped. Two had to be destroyed due to injuries 
sustained in the net. Although three people were at the net almost 
immediately to remove the birds, they became so tightly enmeshed 
that all of them were at least slightly injured. A relatively fine 
net with a two inch mesh was used. A coarser net would probably 
increase the amount of tangling. Further practice would make the 
net much more effective in capturing birds, but it seems possible 
that the percentage of injured birds would be too high to justify 
cannon net trapping. 

A special type of snare designed to attach snugly about a 
bird ? s neck and then break free was experimented with. A small 
numbered tag was attached to the part of the snare which would be 
carried away by the bird. There was no opportunity to use the snare, 
but the principle could be quite effective provided the trapper has 
a detailed knowledge of the birds * daily behaviour. Certainly the 
technique deserves some experimenting. The dancing ground located 
in the Mando radio tower enclosure on the edge of Fort Frances 
would be a suitable place to attempt snare banding. A maze of net 
surrounding the dancing ground with snares set in the openings might 
be one possible procedure for snaring the birds. 

Summary 

During mid winter seven days were devoted to locating and 
observing sharptail coveys. A total of 92 birds in eight separate 
coveys with several repeat observations were made. 

Fourteen mornings were spent locating and observing birds 
during the dancing season. Fifteen dancing grounds were actually 
located and the general areas for eleven more were recorded. By 
May 1st, the peak of the dancing activity had not been reached; it 
probably had occurred by May 10th. 



- 15 - 

Sufficient time for cannon projected net trapping was not 
available" considerable skill will be needed to make the technique 
effective and injuries to birds may be unjustifiably high, 

A snare banding system was experimented with briefly. 
This technique deserves further consideration. 

Recommendations 

1. The dancing season is definitely the most suitable time of the 
year to carry out routine sharptail census. Unfortunately it 
occurs when the spring work load is near its heaviest. There 
are two possible approaches to starting a systematic census; 
have one conservation officer devote full time to sharptail 
census and trapping work during the last two weeks of April and 
the first two weeks of May. If this cannot be arranged two 
conservation officers should be allotted adequate time to carry 
out detailed dancing ground censuses in their patrol areas. 

In either case the census should be set up systematically so 
that counts on an adequate number of dancing grounds (perhaps 
20 to 40 as a start can be repeated from year to year. 

2. If time is available cannon net trapping should be attempted. 
Further experience should increase the effectiveness of this 
method. Snare banding should also be attempted. 

3. So far it has been impossible to comply with the request from 
Maine's Department of Game and Inland Fisheries for sharptail 
for introduction purposes there. 

If further cannon trapping proves unsuccessful it is 
recommended that a private party be hired to trap sharptail during 
the fall season when they are feeding on grain. A possible rate of 
payment would be five dollars per bird for the first 20 birds and 
three to four dollars for any additional birds trapped. Shipping 
arrangements and assistance should be provided by department staff. 

APPENDIX - Dancing Ground Counts 



Date Location Number of Birds 



March 27 Mando Radio Tower 13 

April 11 Lot 3, Con. II Burriss 11 

April 14 Lot 2, Con. IV 13 

April 15 Lot 5 ? Con. Ill 12 

April 15 Mando Tower 11 

April 17 Mando Tower g 

April 20 Lot 17, Devlin 10 

April 27 Mando Tower 18-20 

May 1 Lot 7, Con. VI Carpenter 30-40 



- 16 - 

CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING A WETLAND INVENTORY 
FOR SOUTHERN ONTARIO 

by 
J. B. Dawson 



Wetlands serve many useful functions, they provide habitat 
for waterfowl, aquatic furbearers and many upland game species. 
Other important values associated with wetlands include ground-water 
storage, retention of surface water for farm uses, stabilization of 
runoff and prevention or reduction of erosion. 

Each year in southern Ontario many wetlands are lost 
through drainage, while others are lost to public recreation through 
the posting of private property. As the population of Ontario con- 
tinues to grow, still greater demands will be put on our existing 
wetlands. 

The fact that a wetland inventory of southern Ontario is 
badly needed will not be laboured here; suffice it to say that 
governments of several northern states consider wetland inventory 
and subsequent acquisition and/or management a very important part 
of their resource management programs. Minnesota, for instance, is 
acquiring wetlands as quickly as possible to save them from drainage; 
as of Feb. 1959, this state had 60,900 acres of wetland purchased 
or optioned for purchase at a cost of $1,891,000.00. Minnesota's 
ultimate goal is 209,000 acres at an estimated cost of $6,500,000.00. 
New York State considers land acquisition one of the most important 
aspects of its game management program. This state is concentrating 
on wetlands and their associated upland habitat and is paying as high 
as ^125.00 per acre for public hunting grounds in areas of high 
population. This program costs about $100,000 per year. 

If Ontario is to manage its wetlands, an extensive inventory 
program must first be carried out. Inventory must be conducted 
over as short a period as possible since much initial information 
becomes obsolete during extended surveys. In the same light, 
acquisition and/or other management programs should follow inventory 
closely. 

Some of the more important information available from an 
inventory might include: 

(a) the total acreage of various wetland types and their distribution 
throughout southern Ontario. 



- 17 - 



(b) the location of key wetlands which are in danger through posting 
or drainage and which might be acquired and/or managed. 

It has been suggested that there are several government 
departments which have an interest in wetlands and which might assist 
on a wetland survey. It is my opinion that a survey would be best 
conducted by one department; Lands and Forests has, perhaps, the 
greatest interest in wetland values. This does not preclude 
assistance from other sources, however. 

Several methods of inventory have been used by other govern- 
ment agencies and four techniques were tested by H. G. Kerriam in 
1956, working under the direction of Dr. A. deVos at Guelph. The 
results of this study are contained in Ontario Lands and Forest's 
Fish and Wildlife Management Report #32, Dec. 1, 1956. 

The four techniques listed below involved the use of: 

(1) Indispensable* aerial photos, topographical maps, and field 
forms for recording information. 

(2) Dispensable aerial photos upon which wetlands were outlined and 
numbered, and field forms. 

(3) Indispensable aerial photos, topographical maps and punch cards 
which were used to record information. 

(A-) Dispensable aerial photos and punch cards. 

The last, number (4) » was the most efficient method; pre- 
paration of survey material was much reduced and data could be quickly 
and efficiently analyzed by needle-sorting the punch cards. 

The above techniques were tested in Puslinch Township of 
Wellington County. The cost and labour requirements of technique 

(4) are not known, but the less efficient technique (1) cost |3«2$ 
per square mile and required 25 man-days to survey one township of 
93 sq. miles. 

The average township in southern Ontario probably does not 
have as high a wetland density as Puslinch township and this might 
reduce the number of man days required to survey a 100 sq. mile 
township to about 1^> Survey efficiency would also increase by using 
technique number (4)« It is doubtful, however, if survey costs per 
sq. mile would be substantially reduced, since the project would 
require full time permanent as well as part time supervisory staff 
during the field season. It is probable that survey costs would run 
in the neighbourhood of $3»00 per sq. mile. 



Photos were borrowed and could not be taken into the field. 



- id - 

If the above figure is related to the area south of the 
Pre-Cambrian shield (about 30,000 sq. miles*), then a wetland _ 
inventory of this type for southern Ontario would cost about f 90, 000. 

Assuming that 100 sq. miles could be surveyed in 15 days, 
a survey of the area south of the Pre-Cambrian shield would require 
4,500 man-days. If conducted over a three year period, such a 
survey would probably require the following personnel each year: 

1 full-time biologist 
1 part-time field party supervisor 
15 summer students (100 days each) 

It is evident that both costs and labour requirements 
of such a survey would be high. 



The most practical approach at the present time appears to 
be a survey based on the stereoscopic study of aerial photographs 
with data recorded on punch cards. 

Mr. G. Merriam, now studying at Cornell University, attempted 
to compare the accuracy and efficiency of stereoscopic interpretation 
of photographs with information recorded on ground surveys and used 
material collected during the 1956 ground survey of Wellington 
County as an illustration. This writer has recently discussed the 
results of this comparison with Mr. Merriam, and it appears that 
stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photos holds much promise. 

Advantages associated with this method appear to far out- 
weigh disadvantages: the former include: 

(1) Practically all wetlands present in an area can be located. 

(2) Photographic analysis gives much better perspective^ since relief 
is exaggerated by the stereoscope, data concerning drainage or 
impoundment possibilities are much more easily obtained than on 
the ground. Semi-permanent streams also may be located easily. 

(3) Large areas may be surveyed with a minimum of time and effort. A 
surprisingly accurate appraisal of both terrestrial and aquatic 
vegetation is possible. 

(4) The location of possible sites for new impoundments is facilitated. 
This is an important factor, since otherwise it requires much 
experience to assess topography as it relates to drainage and area 
of watershed. 



Chapman & Putnam - 1951 - The Physiography of Southern Ontario. 



- 19 - 

Disadvantages of aerial photo interpretation includes 

(i) Shadows on photographs occasionally cause wetlands to be missed, 
although this error is probably lower than would occur on 
ground surveys. 

(ii) There is some difficulty in recognizing certain types of 
vegetation. 

(iii) Although most land uses are easily recognized, it is difficult 
to evaluate the intensity of livestock grazing from aerial 
photographs. 

Kerriam found that aerial photo interpretation could be 
surprisingly accurate, - more accurate in some instances than ground 
surveys. This accuracy applied principally to drainage or impound- 
ment possibilities and to the areas of wetlands. 

The interpretation of aerial photographs does take some 
experience but extensive training is not essential. A good knowledge 
of the plant associations of different wetland types is probably a 
more important requisite and personnel engaged on an inventory should 
have a basic knowledge of wetland plant ecology. Initially, photo 
interpretation could be checked by ground surveys^ later, as workers 
gain experience, only spot-checks of various wetland types would be 
necessary to ensure accuracy. 

Exact costs and labour requirements are not available; it 
is evident however, that both would be substantially lower than for 
other known methods of inventory. In my opinion a survey based on 
photo interpretation certainly appears to be the logical approach at 
the present time. 



- 20 - 

ADDRESS TO THE ONTARIO GAME BREEDERS ♦ ASSOCIATION, 

JULY 15, 1959 

by 
Dr. F. W. Reramler 
Griffith's Island 
North Keppel, Ontario 



One of the first things I did, more than eight years ago, 
when I came to Canada, was to buy the "Hunters Encyclopedia", a book 
of more than seven pounds and 1152 pages with over one million words, 
according to the generous advertisement of the publishers. It was 
only natural that I wanted to inform myself about the American hunting 
conditions, and this book, if any, I thought would provide me with 
the necessary information. With mounting surprise I began to study 
these seven pounds of printed and illustrated paper and found that 
out of the 1152 pages 113d contained information on how to successfully 
hunt various mammals and birds. Their biology was hardly touched upon, 
yes, and a whole 14 pages were given to Wildlife Management, or 
actually to what the Government and the various organizations do for 
the game. Anything the individual hunter could possibly do is being 
kept a carefully guarded secret. Not one of the more than a million 
words concerns hunting ethics or morals. In a similar book published 
in Europe probably half of the contents would concern itself with 
wildlife management and hunting ethics, and the remaining portion 
would describe various hunting methods. 

After a little consideration I realized why this American 
hunting book treated the management part in such skimpish manner. Due 
to the fact that the hunting rights in America do not belong to the 
landowner or the owner of the hunting rights, as the case is almost 
everywhere in the old world, the hunter has no particular interest in 
wildlife management (unless he happens to be a very idealistic person, 
or an unusually unselfish sample of the human race) for as a rule he 
would have no opportunity to reap the fruits of his work. Under these 
conditions it is easily understood that the wildlife management must 
be done by the government and a number of idealistic groups and 
organizations, the work of which I have later learned to be very 
commendable. As an example I will only mention "Ducks Unlimited." 
The efforts of this organization as regards the promotion of waterfowl 
can well be compared with the work of the Inter-European Conventions, 
as a matter of fact, as far as activity and freehanded action goes, 
overshadows these. 

One thing I have yet to understand is why the book completely 
ignores everything concerning ethics. This, at least in my opinion, 
is an unforgivable lack which can hardly be defended. 

In America, where the hunting can not look back on many 
feudal traditions, and where every person has the right and opportunity 
to hunt, and where this opportunity is made great use of, not enough 
can be done to raise the level of hunting ethics. Every printed page 



- 21 - 

concerned with hunting, should remind the hunter that he has not only 
a right to the game, but also a responsibility toward it, a responsi- 
bility toward the whole of nature, for that matter. 

But what is the situation actually? In all the great many 
hunting magazines which I get to read yearly, I don ? t believe I have 
ever seen articles concerned with hunting ethics, but not so seldom 
have I read hunting stories which are a direct slap in the face as far 
as ethics goes. For instance, to glorify a man who regularly hunts 
eagles from an airplane, just to take one distasteful story out of the 
pile. Others, as hunting big game with handguns or holding of beagle- 
trials in the spring, are not hard to find. 

I just mentioned the great work done by governments and the 
various organizations in the field of wildlife management. Built upon 
biological facts as it is, this work is both sound and effective. But 
the individual hunter too, is in a position to do much for the 
improvement of hunting, without having to spend a great deal of money, 
for instance, through plantation of cover for upland game, or through 
the establishment of ponds for ducks, but especially by furthering 
hunting ethics through speech and writing, and not least, by setting 
a good example. A question which should be of interest to all of us, 
is the yearly increasing influence of human culture on nature, and 
consequently of course on hunting in all its forms. That the management 
of wildlife must keep in step with this development is only too clear. 
Thus what is good for the Canadian wilderness doesn't necessarily have 
to be a blessing to an area near a big city, or one undergoing inten- 
sive farming, or for instance, an island like Griffith's Island. The 
more man alters or destroys nature, the more the wild animals become 
directly or indirectly dependent on his consideration and care. And 
the forms of hunting change alongside, step by step, to finally become 
something so artificial as the modern hunting preserves. 

From a viewpoint of hunting I would like to divide the grounds 
into three different classes or stages of development, depending on how 
far the changing influence of human culture has progressed. 

The primary stage is the untouched wilderness, to which, from 
a hunting viewpoint also such areas should be included, where the human 
influence has not yet reached a stage where it has robbed the game of 
any of its necessities for existence. The animals, which live under 
these conditions need no artificial feeding during normal years. Only 
during serious starvation years is a feeding justified, but the question 
is, if this help, which man can give during such unforeseen years, is 
of much value. In most cases conditions are such that the help will 
not arrive in time, at least not to the places where it is most needed. 
Whether the hunting in such areas is done via weeklong packhorse trips, 
or from a blind a few hundred yards from the house corner is of no 
importance. In any case the game is wild from all aspects, and is so 
to speak untouched by man. 



- 22 - 

To class two I count such grounds where most of the conditions 
required by the game for its perpetuation are present, but where the 
winter feed is strongly reduced, or where it is out of reach of the 
animals for one reason or another. So, for instance, are the red-deer 
in mountainous south Germany almost entirely cut off from their 
natural winter feeding grounds in the valleys by the advance of culture 
and are therefore forced to stay on the slopes the year around. If 
we were to go by the principle here that all regular winter feeding is 
detrimental, then Germany's rich deer stand would soon be but a memory. 
Here regular winter feeding is not only desirable but very much a 
necessity. 

The south German red-deer are not the only game which receive 
artificial feeding in Central Europec I think one could without 
exaggeration say that all game with the exception of wild boar, is 
being "Gehegt", a word, which strangely enough has no counterpart in 
the English language, but which means something like "taken care of." 

It is not altogether impossible that the day may come in the 
USA when a regular winter feeding of elk and mule deer will be a 
necessity, be it then that the winter feeding grounds can be kept 
accessible to these animals through drastic measures. But compared 
to central Europe, the USA has two great advantages. First of all 
there is more room, and secondly, the situation is clear to everyone 
and the necessary steps can be taken before it is too late. 

As far as the white-tailed deer are concerned, I suppose that 
one has come to the conclusion everywhere in America that a regular 
winter feeding is ill-advised and should not be encouraged. If the 
number is kept at a level of the carrying capacity of the area, so 
that the animals will not destroy their own requirements for existence 
through overbrowsing, they can easily live on the edge of a large 
city, which they often do, as a matter of fact. It does not take too 
much keeness to find out why Griffith's Island has become an area 
which must be included in class two. A short visit of the woods makes 
it clear even to the biologically less schooled that the carrying 
capacity has been long since exceeded and that the deer have completely 
destroyed the bush to such degree that it would take roughly 30 years 
to bring it back to a state wh' re it could carry a limited number of 
animals. They therefore depend entirely on the feed we give them 
during the winter. I am mentioning the conditions here on the Island 
mainly because it shows quite clearly that a deer population can exist 
and be quite satisfied although they are entirely dependent on an 
artificial feeding during the winter. In the literature we often find 
negative opinions about the feeding. For instance, there is in the 
Wisconsin Conservation Departments Technical Wildlife Bulletin number 
14 the following passages "Besides the fact that artificial feeding 
contributed to the critical status of the range, it sometimes offered 
little relief from starvation during critical winters. Starvation 
losses were tragically high in some feeding areas where the greatest 
efforts, or at least the greatest costs were incurred." And a little 
further the following sentences "When starved deer are found in areas 



- 23 - 

where feeding operations are being conducted, the inevitable question 
asked why, if pen-controlled feeding experiments prove conclusively 
that deer can be sustained satisfactorily on artificial feed for 
normal yarding periods, should there be any starvation losses?" 

During the last winter, which may be considered a very 
difficult one, we lost only seven deer, two of them through accidents. 
Of the remaining five these were four buck-fawns and one four year old 
buck. The last mentioned died of digestive troubles, a very unusual 
happening here on the Island. Samples of the marrow from two of the 
fawns showed that undernourishment played a part in their death. I 
found the other two fawns too late to determine the reason for their 
death. We feed the deer with oats, corn and alfalfa and begin the 
feeding in the middle of October. It is important to begin early so 
that the animals will not become starved and gorge themselves on the 
first feed given. It is equally important to continue the feeding 
into the spring until the first green grass is available to the 
animals. Even here I have been able to confirm the long known fact 
that late spring is the most dangerous time for the animals, and all 
five animals we lost during the winter died at the end of March and 
beginning of April. Should someone care to establish a shooting 
preserve for deer, I can inform him that the cost of feed for the 
winter is approximately twenty dollars per average deer . 

So, as far as the deer go Griffith's Island must be included 
in class two of the areas I have mentioned. As far as the pheasants 
are concerned, the Island is a pure shooting preserve and therefore 
belongs to class three, where man has taken the game completely in his 
care, so to say from birth to death. The only difference is that we 
release the pheasants at eight weeks of age, instead of releasing a 
certain number of birds immediately preceding each shoot, as is usual 
on commercial shooting preserves. 

Sometime ago I read a magazine article about shooting preser- 
ves. The author expressed the opinion that in the near future all 
hunting will be done on preserves. Forgive an old-timer if he hopes 
this day lies far away in the future. But nevertheless, I welcome 
these preserves with satisfaction and wish their operators good luck. 
Because shooting has become the main point for a great number of 
hunters (or let's say shooters), all conservation minded hunters will 
be glad to see these gentlemen finding an outlet for their trigger- 
happiness and so relieve the pressure on really wild birds in the field. 
And besides, these establishments promise a good income for a great 
number of people who are interested in raising game birds. 

For several years I have made a series of experiments to get 
rid of the gapeworm plague which causes the loss of a great number 
of birds. At first I worked alone and since 1955 s in co-operation with 
the Department of Parasitology of the Ontario Veterinary College, 
Guelph. We have succeeded in manifesting the earthworm as the 
intermediate host of the gapeworm, which carries the parasite from one 



- 24 - 

bird to another. After a series of rather frustrating experiments 
we have finally found a satisfactory chemical against the earthworm 
and consequently against the gapeworm. These findings are soon to be 
published by the Ontario Veterinary College and should be of great 
value to all pheasant breeders whose flocks suffer from this condition, 



- 25 - 

CENSUS FOR COTTONTAIL RABBITS 
LAKE HURON DISTRICT, 195^-59 

by 
R. E. Mason 



Introduction 

The cottontail is more heavily hunted than any other game 
species in this district. During 195&-59 a mail bag survey of 
hunters in regulated townships indicated that k.6,8% of all game 
species bagged were cottontails. Pheasants comprised 20.6$, hares 
(European) 16.6$, waterfowl 8,1% and grouse, squirrels and foxes 
from 2-3$ each. (Job Completion Report, Winter XI, 1959") Despite 
this fact relatively little has been done in the line of a census of 
the cottontail. 

Part of the difficulty in securing adequate population in- 
formation has been the apparent lack of a suitable census technique. 
In Missouri, cottontail census information is secured by road counts 
during the period July 13-21. An analysis of eleven years ? information 
secured in this manner revealed a direct relationship between the 
juvenile to adult ratio, plus number of observations per mile and 
the hunting success during the following open season. (Wright, H. - 
Journ. Wildlife Man., Vol. 23, No. 1, 1959). The success of the road 
count technique in Missouri led to the attempt described here to 
determine the applicability of the technique in this district. 

The survey was attempted only on a preliminary basis by the 
author, and results are not intended to present a district-wide 
picture of cottontail populations. 

Procedure 

Secondary gravel surfaced roads were driven by car during 
the week of July 13 between 5»30 and 6.45 A.M. The survey was run in 
Wellington and parts of Halton and Waterloo Counties. Cottontails 
were recorded as juvenile or not fully grown, and adult or fully 
grown. Speeds driven were between 30-40 miles per hour although other 
speeds were tried. 

Observations were arbitrarily broken into five mile transects 
to assist in statistical analysis. 






- 26 - 

Results 

For use in the preliminary data, 19 five mile transects 
were run with a total observation of seven adults and 19 juveniles. 
Data are presented below; 

Cottontails per transect; 1.37 
Cottontails per mile; 0.274 
Young per adult; 2.72 

In addition two adult and one juvenile European hare were 
also observed. 

Discussion 

I of Technique 

From the results obtained in Missouri weather factors can 
be expected to adversely affect the technique. Extremely hot and 
dry weather during the July census period will reduce the number of 
observations disproportionately, and lack of snowfall during the 
hunting season will reduce hunter success, also disproportionately. 
In the eleven years each of these factors was encountered once. 

The time of day for this survey was chosen as cottontails 
are most active at dawn, but some sunlight is required for accurate 
observation of age classes. Although cottontails were still observed 
on some roads after 7.00 A.M., rural traffic increased sufficiently 
from 6.30-7.00 A.M. to adversely affect observations. 

No observations were recorded during the week on hard-sur- 
faced roads. This may be due to the increased traffic on these 
roads which led to the selection of gravel surfaced roads for the 
survey. No effort was made to choose roads which passed through any 
predetermined cover types and cottontails were observed in both open 
and wooded situations. Secondary roads which have the roadside 
vegetation either mowed or sprayed should be avoided. In the Missouri 
study, permanently established routes are used. 

a speed of 30-40 M.P.H. was determined to be most satis- 
factory. Speeds below 30 M.P.H. were not satisfactory as the 
cottontails ran off the road too far ahead of the car to be accurately 
aged. Speeds over 40 M.P.H. did not allow sufficient time to observe 
rabbits. The speed driven is also regulated by road conditions and 
conditions of vegetation along the roadways. 

No difficulty was encountered in aging cottontails by 
their size during this week. Of a total of 27 observationsused in the 
preliminary data, only one had to be recorded as unknown. It is felt 
that variation between observers will not affect the data although 
this factor was not tested. No difficulty was encountered in dis- 
tinguishing between European hare of any age group and cottontails. 
Difficulty might be encountered in distinguishing between snowshoe 
hare juveniles and cottontail juveniles although adults of these two 
species should be distinguishable. 



- 27 - 



II of Results 



Using S = CW N x £ FD 2 . (*FD)2 



the standard deviation of the mean was determined to be 2.56 and 
standard error 0.59. Fiducial limits of the $0% level of confidence 
indicate the value of the mean to be 1.37 i 0.7$. Considering the 
size of the sample, the results are encouraging. 

By application of formula, a total of 42.3 plots or 211.5 
miles will be required to adequately sample a population of cotton- 
tails at the $0% level of confidence. If individual populations 
of cottontails are not subject to wide variances in small geographi- 
cal locations, this represents a small expenditure of manpower to 
obtain a satisfactory estimate of populations as the 95 miles used 
in this preliminary data was covered in three mornings. The only 
evidence offered that populations variation is not great in relatively 
small geographical locations is the small degree of statistical 
variation encountered in this survey which covered roughly 200 square 
miles. 

Conclusions 

From the results given above it would appear that roadside 
counts conducted, as described, will provide a workable method of 
censusing cottontails in this district. Information secured would 
then be related to hunter success as determined from the mail bag 
survey for prediction of future hunting. 



- 23 - 



COTTONTAIL INDEX - PELEE ISLAND, 1953-59 

by 
L. J. Stock 



This cottontail count was made incident to the pheasant 
survey on Pelee Island in July, 1959. 

The index shows an increase of 67% over 1958 despite a 
season which afforded excellent shooting. Residents reported that an 
unusually high number of rabbits were shot during the winter of 
1958-59. 



Year 


Miles of 
Transect 


Rabbits 
Counted 


Rabbits 
Per Mile 


Difference 
Percent 


Adult 

Fern. 


Juv. 


Juv. Per 

Ad. Fern. 


1953 


276 




155 


0.56 










1954 


267 




120 


0.45 


-20 








1956 


13 8 




28 


0.20 


-56 








1957 


133 




60 


0.44 


+120 


3.5 


27 


7.7 


1958 


132 




185 


1.4 


+ 208 


11 


143 


13 


1959 


138 




309 


2.24 


+67 


30.5 


210 


6.9 






Adult sex ratio is assumed to be 1 to 1 

Juvenile to adult female ratio is calculated for all rabbits 
which could be definitely identified as adult or juvenile. The 
remainder are either adults or sub-adults and probably include some 
adult females which would lower the figure for juveniles per adult 
female. However, the majority of the remainder are believed to be 
young of the year. 



29 



THE SIZE, RATE OF GROWTH AND LONGEVITY OF THE 
BLACK BEAR ( Ursus an eric anus americanus ) 

by 

C. W. Douglas 



Introduction 

Reliable information on the size of black bears for this 
area or, for that matter most parts of the continent, is either very 
scanty or totally absent from the literature „ Estimated weights are 
common but of justifiably suspect accuracy. 

Mat son (in Drahos, 1952) likely with tongue-in-cheek, treats 
this subject of estimated weights by suggesting that most hunter- 
guesses should be divided by two, then add or subtract 2 5 to 50 
pounds according to personal judgment. As a case in point, the 245 
pound bear which we weighed on September 2k» 1957? was reported as 
a "500 pounder" and so, by coincidence, lends credence to Mat son's 
humorous comment. This, however, hardly recommends the method for 
general and exclusive use. 

Weights of bears, have, of course, always been the subject 
of controversy and Arthur E. Brown (in Set on, 1929) also saw humour 
in this when he said - "It is a curious fact in the geographical 
distribution of animals - for which an explanation might be sought 
among ethical rather than physical causes - that 1,000 pound bears 
are not found inhabiting the same range of country as Fairbanks' 
scales." This was with reference to grizzlies but, in proportion, 
is equally applicable to black bears. 

Although it is general practise to discredit reports of very 
large black bears, the existence of at least a few very large ones 
should not be perfunctorily dismissed. The weights of some very 
large, weighed specimens recorded in the literature from several 
widely separated points are set down, later in this paper, to 
illustrate this, and most of us believe we have seen much larger 
black bears than we have so far been privileged to weigh. 

Because information on sizes and weights is so sparse, 
presentation of our small series, at this time may serve a useful 
purpose. 

In order that other information of related nature may also 
be available for ready reference a considerable series from black 
bear literature is also summarized throughout the paper. 



- 30 - 

Weights and Lengths of Black Bears In the White River District 

as black bears, as game animals, are rising in importance 
in the area we have, since 1957, carried on a limited investigation 
to gather general information on bears and specimen material with 
which to explore the possibility of devising an aging technique for 
the species. 

During this work accurate weights of 19 and lengths (nose- 
tip to tail-tip) of twenty specimens have been secured. Collectors 
have also reported the sex of each bear and have given their opinion 
concerning the animals* state of maturity (cub, immature, adult). 

One bear was weighed on a platform scale, the remainder 
with beam balances. 

The lengths, in inches, were established after the carcasses 
had been placed on their backs in as straight and level a position 
as the terrain would permit. 

In this series, male bears weighed as much as 333 lbs. at 
65 inches. A still longer bear, 74 inches, was not weighed. 

The heaviest female weighed 1^0 pounds and the longest 
measured 5& inches. 

This information is summarized in Table No. 1 and No. 2. 



p 
o 

■H 

u 

p 
to 

•H 
Q 

rH 

a) 
> 

•H 



(0 

'h 

(6 

0) 
CQ 



to 

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- 32 - 

The C.P. Express Agent, Mr. E. N. McMenemy of White River, 
has weighed, for shipping, hog-dressed bears which tipped the scales 
at over 400 lbs. Gerstell (1939) reports that bears on the average, 
lose 14.1$ of live weight when hog-dressed. On this basis the 400 
lb. bear would have had a live weight of about 465 pounds. 

We may, then, reasonably assume that at least a few of our 
bears will eventually be found to rank well up in the North American 
weight series presented later. That very large bears will be rare 
is axiomatic since many of the weights shown in this series were so 
exceptional as to be worthy of much note in their own localities. 

Age Classes of Black Bears 

In the management of a species, data on age and reproduction 
are required. Until a generally-accepted aging technique has been 
developed it would be desirable if we could at least separate adult 
from sub-adult specimens. 

In general, it is not difficult to look at a bear and form 
the opinion that it is "young" or "old" but when asked to substantiate 
or account for this opinion, difficulties are likely to arise. 

We have done some preliminary work on tooth-sectioning, 
after the method now in general use for aging seals. 

This work shows promise but we have not yet carried it far 
enough for presentation at this time. 

In attempting to discover a growth-factor which could be 
expressed mathematically and have some co-relation with age, the 
weight of each bear, in pounds was divided by the length in inches 
(Tables 1 and 2, Col. 4). This resulted in the discovery of three 
distinct groups which we will call "cub", "immature", and "adult". 
These categories agree with the collectors* opinions as to state of 
maturity with only one exception and in that case the collector 
expressed doubt as to his categorization. 

Table No. 3 summarizes the ranges of these "growth factor" 
categories and shows the range of dispersion. 



TABLE NO. 3 - Growth Factor (Weight * Length) of Black Bears 
(a) Males 



Observer's 

Category M-2S.D. M-l&D. M-1RE, 



Mean (M) MflP.E. M+1S.D. M*2S.D. 



Immature 1.542 1.946 2.08 2.35 2.62 
Adult 3.445 3.910 4.O65 4.375 4.685 



2.754 3.158 
4.840 5.305 



(b) Females 

Immature 2.05 
Adult 



2.15 



2.18 



2.25 
3.3 



2.32 



2.35 



2.45 



- 33 - 




Standard deviation (S.D.) = 



Probable error of the Kean (P.E.) = 0.6745 S.Do 

In summarizing Tables 1 and 2 we note that this factor 
was, for males : 

a) Cub - 0.65 

b) Immature - 2.3 5 (1.8 to 2.7) 

c) Adults - 4.375 (3.7 to 5.1) 

and for females : 

a) Cub - 0.65 

b) Immature - 2.25 (2.2-2.4) 

c) Adults - 3.3 

Our series show an overlap in the lengths of "immature" 
and "adult" classes for both sexes. There is no overlapping of the 
calculated growth factor categories for either sex. 

This certainly suggests that this method may prove to be 
of value in separating adult from immature bears. 

Our series is, of course, very small and covers only the 
months of June through September. Hence we have no figures for bears 
immediately after or just before dormancy. However, the series does 
cover the period during which most bears are shot by sportsmen or must 
be killed to protect property. 

It may be held that this factor indicates the physical 
thriftiness of the bears rather than the state-of-maturity. 
Occasionally, I expect, this would certainly be so, especially with 
severely undernourished or unusually fat specimens. However, a study 
of the tables shows that regardless of date-of-kill (and bears are 
reputed to gain or lose weight according to season) the calculated 
factor is within the limits shown in Table 3? and agrees with the 
observer's opinion regarding maturity. 

Local Subspecies of Black Bear 

Throughout the balance of this paper, frequent reference 
is made to bears from other provinces or states. In order that I 
might be assured that all cited references are concerned with our 
subspecies I have used, as my authority, the range maps shown in Hall 
and Kelson (1959) wherein is shown the range of our bear, Ursus 
americanus americanus . 

Rate of Growth of Black Bears 

Gerstell (1939) gives a series of weights and ages of 
bears from Pennsylvania which are summarized in the following table: 



- 34 - 

TABLE NO. 4 - Rate of Growth of Pennsylvania Black Bears 
(After Gerstell, Penna. Game News 10 (3)) 



Age (Months) Mean Weight (Pounds) Weight Range (Pounds) 

30- SO 
30-130 
125-135 
130-240 
215-295 
255-350 



10 


55 


22 


105 


34 


155 


46 


205 


53 


255 


70 


305 



This shows an average rate of growth of 50 pounds per year, 
but with considerable overlap in older classes,. 

Since bears mature (mate) at about 3i years, in zoos, we 
are able to break Gerstell' s series into sections for comparison 
with our series? 

a) Cubs - 30-30 lbs. (to 10 mos.) 

b) Immatures - 30-135 lbs. (to 34 mos.) 

c) Adults - 130- lbs. (over 34 mos.) 

Drahos and Black (1956) give the weights of 54 New York 
bears (aged by tooth size) as follows: 

TABLE NO. 5 - Rate of Growth of New York Black Bears 

(After Drahos and Black, (N.Y. State Cons. 11 (2))). 



Age (Years) 
Cubs 

\\ 



Male 


Mean Weight 


Number 


21 


2 


93 


4 


173 


16 


293 


15 


346 


7 



Female 


Mean Weight 


Number 


21 
132 
129 
203 
226 


1 
2 

1 
2 

4 



lbs. 



Table 5 gives average weights of immature bears up to 173 



Comparison of the Pennsylvania and New York figures with 
our series in Tables 1 and 2 shows that our figures are within 
the ranges shown for cubs, immatures and adults, lending credence to 
the proposition that our "growth factor" indices are correlated with 
age. 



- 35 - 

Perhaps, then, further work will show our "growth factor" 
categories to be of value in separating mature from immature bears 
until such time as a generally-accepted aging technique is developed, 
Even after that the method may be of value as a field or checking 
station technique if specimen materials found necessary for aging 
are also required as trophy material by the hunter. 

Recorded Weights of Black Bears 

During the course of our black bear study many references 
to the weight-ranges and maximum size of bears, which have been 
weighed by or are considered authentic by the various authors have 
been encountered. These are set down in Table No. 6. 





















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These figures certainly show that the black bear occasionally 
reaches a much greater size than is generally realized and, at least 
as far as maximum size is concerned, are not in accord with the belief 
that southern bears are larger. 

Longevity of Black Bears 

Seton (1929) reports on a pair of black bears in Akron Zoo, 
saying, "Both - now 24 years old, are still in excellent health, 
although the male does not become as fat as he did in Autumn, and the 
female has had no cubs for the past three years." 

While Palmer (1954) does not give his source, it appears 
from his text that it may be these same bears to which he refer© on 
page Si where he says, "Life span perhaps ordinarily does not exceed 
12-15 yearsj a female lived 24 years in captivity but did not breed 
the last three years of her life." 

In reply to my enquiry regarding the age attained by black 
bears in captivity I received from Mr. A. Widnall, Secretary-Manager 
of the Fort William Board of Parks Management, the following informa- 
tion dated February 14th, 195$, concerned with a black bear known 
as "Teddy" which had been kept in the zoo at Chippewa Park: 

"While visiting the Winnipeg Zoo in the year 1930 I took a 

fancy to this bear, and the Winnipeg Parks Board were kind enough 

to say we could have same. He was then, I understand, ten years old, 

and we received him in 1930 and he died in 1956, which means he was 
some 36 years old." 

"We had to destroy him in the end, owing to the fact that he 
went blind and was crippled with rheumatism." 

On the basis of these reports we should be justified in 
expecting bears, in the wild, to live to between 15 and 20 years of 
age and, if the fates be kind, to a considerably greater age in rare 
cases. 

Summary 

1. Bears in the White River area reach, and are believed to exceed 
74 inches in total length and 400 pounds in weight. 

2. The weight (in pounds) divided by the length (in inches) appears 
to produce factors by which subadult and adult bears may be 
separated. We found no overlap here as was the case with series 
based only on weight or length. 

3. A 500 pound black bear may be considered an exceptionally large 
specimen, anywhere within the range of Ursus americanus americanus , 
but there are reliable records of much larger specimens. 

4. A black bear has been known to live for 36 years in captivity, 
which should justify a presumption that bears in the wild may 
occasionally live to more than half that figure. 



- 33 - 

B ibliography 

1. Anthony, Harold E. Field Book of North American Mammals. Putnam 9 s 
XXXI +674 p. illustr. 1928. 

2. Burt, William H. The Mammals of Michigan. Univ. Mich. Press 
XX 4-288 p. illustr. 1948. 

3. and R. P. Grossenheider. A Field Guide to the Mammals. 

Houghton Mifflin XXI +200 p. illustr. 1952. 

4. Cahalane, Victor H. Mammals of North America. Macmillan 682 p. 
1947. 

5. Drahos, Nicholas. Notes on Bears. N. Y. State Cons . 7(2)^14-18, 
Illus. Oct. -Nov., 1952. 






6. and Hugh Black. A Bear by the Tail. N. Y. State Cons. 
11 (2)s28-29, illustr. Oct. -Nov., 1956. 

7. Ely, Alfred, H. E. Anthony and R. R. M. Carpenter. North American 
Big Game. Scribner^s XXII +533 p. illustr., 1939. 

8. Gerstell, Richard. The Growth and Size of Pennsylvania Black 
Bears. Pa. Game News 10 (8)s4-7, Nov., 1939. 

9. Gunderson, Harvey L. and James R. Beer. The Mammals of Minnesota. 
U. of Minn. Press XII fl90 p. illustr, 1953. 

10. Hall, E. Raymond and Keith R. Kelson. The Mammals of North 
America. Ronald 2 vol. XXX +546 - 79, VIII - 547 - 1083 - 79 p. 
illustr. 1959. 

11. Palmer, Ralph S. The Mammals Guide/Mammals of North America 
North of Mexico. D oubleday 1-384 p. illustr. 1954. 

12. Seton, Ernest T. Lives of Game Animals. Branford 8 vol. 1929. 
Repr. 1953. 

13. Severinghaus. C. W. The Bears and the Biologists. N. Y, State 
Cons. 12 (2) 226-27 illustr. Oct. Nov., 1957. 

14. Widnall, A. Personal Communication. Feb. 14? 1958. 

15« Zim, Herbert S. & Donald F. Hoffmeister. Mammals/A Guide to 

Familiar American Species. Simon and Schuster 160 p. illustr. 
1955. 



- 39 - 



MOOSE BROWSE SURVEY, GOG AM DISTRICT, 1959 

by 
G. E. Vozeh and A. Zimmerman 



An appraisal of winter browsing by moose was carried out 
on one square mile of range in Togo Township during the period 
May 5 to 8, 1959» The plot was located in a 33 square mile aerial 
moose census plot situated within (near its western edge) a 600 
square mile tract burned over in 1941* Some sections of this burn 
have supported high numbers of moose in recent years, the average 
count of moose for the census plot obtained in five surveys made 
in the past four years being 1.25 per square mile. Utilization of 
the area by moose has been by no means uniform, or constant from one 
survey to the next. The time of winter a survey was made probably 
influenced the number of moose seen (e.g. there seems to be a marked 
migration from the burn to older stands in late February and March), 
and the relationship of observations to "islands" of unburned forest 
leaves no doubt as to the importance of cover to moose in winter. 

The browse survey plot was placed in the northwest corner 
of the census plot, partly because it was the most accessible section 
and partly because on three of the five aerial surveys moose were 
observed within that one square mile block (20, 7 and 2). Although 
none were observed there during the 195$-59 survey, old tracks as- 
sured us that the site was being frequented and a browse survey 
there was justified. 

The west side of the browse plot was a high ridge bordering 
a river. The terrain sloped eastward to a black spruce swamp on 
the east border, so that most of the plot was a form of plateau. 
Four smaller mature spruce swamps were scattered among the mixed young 
growth that covered the greater part of the plot. 

Method 

The survey method developed by Passmore and Hepburn (1955) 
for deer was used, the only modification being the use of vertical 
browsing limits of two feet to 10 feet instead of 1.5 feet to six 
feet. A total of 64 plots 1/330 acre in size were tallied. These 
were spaced at five chain intervals on four strips l/4 mile apart. 

Extent of Browsing 

The data from the tally sheets are summarized in Table I. 
Table II shows the browse available on plots and the intensity of 
browsing. 



- 40 - 



Of 24 tree and shrub species available to moose, 10 had 
been browsed during the winter just ended. Pin cherry, found on 70% 
of the plots, was the most widely distributed species. Mountain ash, 
white birch and alder occurred on half of the plots Four species, 
alder, pin cherry, hazel and mountain ash accounted for 67% of the 
total stems on the plots. Mountain ash and willow proved to be the 
species preferred by moose? though they accounted for only 15% of 
the stems available, they supplied 76% of browse units. Willow alone 
supplied 30% of browse units, while contributing only 2.3% of avail- 
able stems. None of the other eight species browsed by moose contri- 
buted more than 5% of browse units. 

Severity of Browsing 

The effect of browsing by moose on commercial tree species 
and shrubs other than mountain ash and willow on this plot has been 
negligible (see comparison below). 



Willow & Mountain Ash 
Commercial Species 
Other Shrubs 



Living 
Stems 

261 

296 

1253 



Killed 



19 
nil 

5 



Mutilated 



113 
14 
15 



Browse 
Units 

6929 

902 

1266 



The results of the survey suggest that on this presumably 
typical section of the large burn of 1941 the relatively high winter 
moose densities of recent years have had little visible effect upon 
the trees and shrubs growing there. Willow and mountain ash, clearly 
the favorite foods of moose using the area, might be depleted if 
heavy utilization continues, directing attention to the good variety 
of other species available. Of the coniferous tree species, balsam 
and black spruce showed a very little browsing and commercial deciduous 
species were only lightly damaged (less than 10% mutilated or browsed). 
Extensive shading out of shrubs by the rising forest will not, in much 
of the area, occur for some time to come, and the sampled area should 
be able to continue providing winter browse for good numbers of moose 
for at least the next decade. 



Last year, a similar survey was made of another type of good 
winter moose range in the District, a mature mixed forest. The two 
plots were similar in that in both cases mountain ash supplied nearly 
50% of the browse units; this species is certainly much sought after 
by moose in the District. Second choices were different, though, for 
willows, which were so important on the burn were virtually non- 
existent in the mature forest, where mountain maple supplied the second 



- 41 - 

largest number of browse units (just under 30%, the same proportion as 
second place willows provided on the burn) . 

Literature cited 

Passmore, R. C. and R. L. Hepburn. 1955 
A method for appraisal of winter range of deer. 
Ont., Dept. of Lands & Forests, Research Report 
No. 29, Technical Series, January, 1955* 7 pp. 



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- 44 - 



THE 1958/59 AERIAL CENSUS OF MOOSE IN ONTARIO 

by 
R. Boultbee 



Four moose management regions in the province were censused 
from aircraft in the winter of 195$ and ±959* Mr. Lumsden circulated 
a report dated June 10th, 1959 in which he estimated the moose 
population separately for each management region „ The four estimates 
were then added to obtain an estimate for the whole province. 

It was considered that each management region had a dis- 
crete moose population and hence had to be treated separately. This 
enabled an early, and encouraging, report to be made. Nevertheless 
it is advisable to try to find if the four populations are truly 
discrete, or on the other hand essentially homogeneous. The popula- 
tions in the four management regions could be at different levels 
with no harm to the compilations., It is only necessary that the 
separate variances be essentially the same. In statistical procedures 
it is correct to pool the variances of homogeneous populations. 

The purpose of this paper is to report on the opportunity 
of pooling the separate variances of the 195$-59 moose census. The 
first step was to test the crude variances for homogeneity. When 
this was done they were found to differ almost at the five percent 
point of significance. This was far from satisfactory since the 
variances were really on the verge of being quite different. However 
it was conceivable that over as big an area as the province of Ontario 
there might be extraneous influences adding to the variances. The 
only available data on extraneous influences were the notes recorded 
for each plot on Date, Time Spent Over Plot, Temperature, Snow Depth, 
and Wind Strength. The effects of these factors were eliminated 
by the process known as stratification. 

The recorded factors were used singly and in combination 
to see if a worthwhile reduction could be obtained in the residual 
variance. The results of these calculations are given in appendix 
one. It was necessary to omit the Southern Management Region from 
these calculations because the additional data were not recorded for 
a number of plots. One item was also omitted for a plot in the 
Western Management Region but an average value was substituted from 
plots censused near the same date. 

Appendix one shows that a wide range of reductions can be 
obtained, from the unaltered variance of 154°77> down to 98.83 when 
the effects of Date, Time Over Plot, and Temperature are eliminated. 
This is a very interesting reduction of about one third, due to the 
removal of extraneous and easily measured influences. From a total 
of 196 plots in the three management regions, 90 were lost in elimi- 
nating extraneous variance leaving 106 to account for the residual 
variance of 98.23. It is possible to get additional interesting 
reductions by combining the remaining features but the loss in plots 
is heavy. 



- 45 - 

The reduced variance of 98.83 is still pooled from the three 
management regions. The test for homogeneity, given in appendix two, 
is far below the level of significance. Thus the three management 
regions are found to have not merely similar variances but essentially 
one variance. 

We have established an important fact. As far as the 1958/59 
moose census is concerned, there is a single population across northern 
Ontario and a single estimate of its numbers may be made. If we wish 
we may make a separate estimate for each management unit using the 
pooled variance of 106 plots to find the confidence limits. This is 
considerable more plots than any one region censused. Also, if in 
future years we find we can rely on pooling the variances we will be 
able to save time and money by censusing fewer plots. The test this 
year for homogeneity was so convincing that we have some optimism for 
future years. 

Appendices three and four show how the reduced variance of 
98.83 is used to get a single estimate of population for the three 
management regions combined, and for each region separately. Each 
estimate is the best available for its area but the separate estimates 
do not add to the total for the three regions combined, although the 
comparison is consistent. The following table summarizes the estimates 



$0°/o Confidence Limits 

Area Covered 3y Estimate Mean Value Lower Upper 

Central Management Region 17,474 15,402 19,547 

Northern Management Region 17,026 14,944 19,108 

Western Management Region 40,584 35,352 45,815 

Sum of Three Regions 75,084 65,698 84,470 

Three Regions Combined 75,509 70,093 80,925 



It is interesting to study how the combined factors produce 
reductions in the variance. Some factors taken singly produce a noti- 
ceable reduction. Taken together certain factors produce a reduction 
roughly equivalent to the sum of their separate reductions. But 
certain other factors taken together produce an additional mutual 
reduction, apart from their separate reductions. This additional 
mutual effect is called interaction. It is given to us free for the 
taking and is a useful feature. In the case of Date, Time and 
Temperature combined, interaction is present at the two percent point 
of significance. The total reduction in variance from 154.77 to 98.83 
is significant at better than the one tenth of one percent point, 
which is a very strong indication that a true influence was at work 
rather than mere chance. 



- 46 - 

It is not much work to make a table for two factors, but 
for three factors the work can be tedious. In the case of Date, Time 
and Temperature a separate sheet of paper was used for each half 
month and a two-way table was made on each for Time and Temperature. 

The mind has a little trouble in conceiving Time Spent Over 
Plot as a stratifying factor. It is likely that most time is spent 
over plots with the most moose . Kence stratifying by Time Over Plot 
seems at first to be the same as stratifying by moose counts, which 
would be unforgivable. However any feature which leads to successful 
stratification must be associated significantly with the population 
and Time Over Plot appears to fit this description. The reader is 
invited to do his own thinking. 

Finally, for future benefit, the reader is asked to consider 
what other features besides Date, Time, Temperature, Snow and Wind 
could be recorded just for the trouble of writing them down. The 
time of day was probably recorded but was not included in the summaries 
used by the writer, Mr. Elsey, the District Biologist at Fort Frances, 
has suggested relative humidity (this might be difficult in winter) . 
Ground cover types in terms of moose habitat seem to remain undefined 
in air census and may offer a big reduction in variance. Presence 
or absence of sunshine might be helpful. Wind direction with its 
different moisture characteristics might be useful. 

Mr. Simkin, District Biologist at Sioux Lookout, has ex- 
pressed concern over the unknown effects of differences between 
censusing teams. It is known for instance that Districts have different 
preferences of height for censusing. It would be possible to do some 
study of these effects if stratifying were done by teams Consistent 
records should be kept for each plot showing each member of the team, 
including the pilot, and his function. The statistical basis of this 
study would be that each team would do a group of plots which is 
assumed to be random within itself as well as belonging to a larger 
group which is also random. It is assumed that each group of plots 
censused by a single team would have the same variance. This 
assumption appears reasonable at least for a management unit. Such 
a study might be revealing. 

We do not know what effects unseen moose are having upon the 
census, either by reason of uncertain estimates, or their effects 
upon statistical assumptions. One aspect of unseen moose on a plot 
is that they may cause a zero count for the plot. Some lessening of 
the effects of unseen moose may be obtained from stratifying by cover 
type, sunshine, wind or other factors. 

Zero counts pose a small but important problem. They give a 
skew to the population curve and until we know more about unseen moose 
we will not know to what extent the skewness is characteristic of the 
population and to what extent it is a distortion of the facts. Skew- 
ness introduces an error in that the average is to one side of the peak 
of the population curve, thus distorting the standard error. This 
error is made smaller when the variance is divided by the number of 
plots to find the variance of the mean, and stratifying may remove 
more of it, but some error will always remain as long as it is present 
in the standard error. 



- 47 - 



APPENDIX ONE 



The pooled variance for Central, Northern and Western Regions, 
based on 196 plots, and with no extraneous variation eliminated, is 
154.77. The reductions in this variance obtained by stratifying 
with one or more factors are given below. 



Factor(s) 



[over plot) 



Date 

Time { over p. 

Temperature 

Snow (depth) 

Wind (strength) 

Region 

Date, Time 

Date, Temperature 

Date, Snow 

Date, Wind 

Date, Region 

Time, Temperature 

Time, Snow 

Time, Wind 

Time, Region 

Temperature, Snow 

Temperature, "Wind 

Temperature, Region 

Snow, Wind 

Snow, Region 

Wind, Region 

Date, Time, Temperature 

Date, Time, Wind 

Date, Time, Region 

Date, Temperature, Wind 

Date, Temperature, Region 

Date, Snow, Region 

Date, Wind, Region 

Time, Temperature, Wind 

Time, Temperature, Region 

Time, Snow, Region 

Time, Wind, Region 

Temperature, Snow, Region 

Temperature, Wind, Region 

Snow, Wind, Region 

Date, Time, Temperature, Wind 



Reduced 
Variance 

150.63 
142.15 
153.67 
154.43 
14S. 02 
153.^7 
133.17 
132.61 

137.57 
129.44 
142.12 
146.62 
126. 37 
113. S3 
141.39 
138.33 
149.23 
1 54. 44 
145.45 
153.37 
146.36 
93.83 
120.50 
120.55 
130.71 
116.57 
139.36 
121.46 
114.25 
139.22 
125.93 
119.21 
144.43 
144.37 
123.18 

123.33 



Degrees 

of 
Freedom 



Significance 
Point In 
Percent 



189 
189 
189 
191 
190 

193 
168 

164 
175 
169 
181 
161 
172 
168 
178 
165 
163 
175 
171 
183 
180 
105 
125 
141 
115 
131 
155 
146 
109 
127 
148 
142 
139 
131 
147 
62 



10.0 
0.2 



5.0 

0.2 
0.2 

0.3 
0.1 
1.0 

20.0 
0.1 
0.1 
2.0 
2.0 

20.0 

10.0 

5.0 

0.1 

0.3 
0.1 

3.0 

0.1 

5.0 

0.1 

0.1 

10.0 

0.1 

0.1 

20.0 

10.0 

0.3 

9.0 



- 48 - 

A total of sixty-three combinations of factors is available 
but only thirty-six have been used. Combinations of four or more 
factors give some variances lower than 9$° $3 but too many plots are 
discarded- For instance the last combination in the table gives a 
variance of 123.33? which is not much reduced from the crude variance, 
yet it has only sixty-three effective plots (degrees of freedom =62). 

Conversely, it may be asked why the simple combination of 
Time and Wind with 169 effective plots was rejected. Its variance 
of 113 .#3 gives confidence limits almost as small as 9$«$3. However 
the residual variance within management regions is not homogeneous 
for Time and Wind (p ■ 0.09). For Date, Time and Temperature 
p » 0.87. 

The preceding calculations form a heavy work load. In the 
present instance the writer's secretary did most of the tabulating, 
analyses of variance, and significanct tests, along with the appro- 
priate checks for accuracy. Organizing the work in this way speeds 
it up greatly. 



- 49 - 



APPENDIX TOO 



When extraneous variation due to Date, Time and Temperature 
is eliminated it leaves a variance of $7.29 in the Central Management 
Region, a variance of 73.14 in the Northern Management Region, and 
a variance of 95»46 in the Western Management Region. It is not 
difficult to imagine that these are chance variations around a central 
value, indicating a variance which is essentially the same in each 
management region. Bartlett's test for homogeneous variance is given 
below. 



Manage- 
ment 
Region 



Sum of 
Squares 



Degrees of 
Freedom 
(n-1) 



Reciprocal 
l/(n-l) 



(32) 

Mean 
Squares log S 2 



(n-l)log S 2 



Central 3666.13 
Northern 1024.00 
Western 1813.75 



42 


0.023^1 


87.29 


1.94096 


81.52049 


14 


0.07143 


73.14 


1.86416 


26.09817 


19 


0.05263 


95.46 


1.97982 


37.61660 



a = 3 



6503.88 



75 



0.14787 



145.23526 



Average value of S 2 = 6503.88/75 = 86.72 

log of average value of S 2 = 1.93812 

(1.93812) (75) = 145.35900 

Chi-square ■ 2.3026 (145.35900 - 145-23526) = 0.285 

Correction Factor si* 0.14787 - 0.01333 = i„022 

3(a-l) 

(The figure 0.01333 is the reciprocal of 75) 

Corrected Chi-square = 0.285/1.022 = 0.279 

(degrees of freedom = a-1 = 2) 

The corrected value of Chi-square will be exceeded 87 times out of 
100 by chance alone. The effects of extraneous variations have been 
largely removed. 

Bartlett 9 s test is explained in Snedecor's "Statistical Methods'', 
fifth edition, page 287. 



- 50 - 



APPENDIX THREE 



Calculation of moose population of Central, Northern and Western 
management Regions combined. 



Average number of moose per plot 



996 + 703. .,+. £04 
85 + 45 + 66 

2 503 - 12o77 
~19o" 



Variance = 98.83, with 105 degrees of freedom 

Variance of the mean = 98,83/196 * 0.5042 

Standard error of the mean = V 0.5042 a 0.7101 

80 percent confidence limits = 12.77 * (0.7101) (1.29) 

= 12.77 t 0.92 

= 12.77 t 1.11% 

Total number of plots in three management regions 

B 5,913 (Mr, Lumsden ? s report) 

Total moose = (12.77 * 0.92) (5,913) 

z 75,509 t 5,416 

= from 70,093 to 80,92 5 



- 51 - 

APPENDIX FOUR 

To find if the average number of moose per plot in each management 
region varies significantly from the grand average of 12.77. 

Central Management Region 

Average moose per plot = 996/85 = 11.72 

Variance = 93.33 

Variance of the mean = 98.83/3 5 = 1.16 27 

Standard error of the mean = VI* 1627 = 1.08 

80 percent confidence limits = 11.72 £ (1.08) (1.29) 

- 10.33 to 13.11 

The confidence limits include the grand average of 12.77 

Northern Management Region 

Average moose per plot ■ 703/45 - 15.62 

Variance = 98.83 

Variance of the mean = 98.83/4 5 = 2*19 62 

Standard error of the mean = A/2. 1962 = 1.48 

80 percent confidence limits = 15.62 £ (I.48) (1.29) 

- 13.71 to 17.53 

The confidence limits are too high to contain the grand average 
of 12.77. 

Western Management Region 

Average moose per plot = 804/66 = 12.18 

Variance = 98.83 

Variance of the mean = 98.83/6 6 = 1.49 74 

Standard error of the mean = V 1.4974 =1.22 

80 percent confidence limits = 12.18 t (1.22) (1.29) 

= 10.61 to 13.75 
The confidence limits include the grand average of 12.77. 

Conclusions 

Central and Western Management Regions moose populations 
do not vary significantly from the grand average. The moose popula- 
tion of the Northern Management Region is significantly higher. It 
follows that the population of the Northern Management Region is at 
a higher level than that of the other two Regions. If 95 percent 
confidence levels are used the Northern Region will also include 
the grand average. However odds to 80 to 20 are reasonably good. 

The pooled variance of 98.83 is used throughout, with 105 
degrees of freedom. Thus the confidence limits of each management 
region are set on the basis of 106 effective plots. 



' . i : 



- 52 - 

TRAP-NET PROGRAMME ON LAKE OF THE WOODS 

by 
C.A. Elsey 

Introduction 

The Kenora and Fort Frances Districts jointly requested a 
trap-net project for Lake of the Woods for the summer of 1958. The 
principal reasons for the project are best tabulated as follows and 
not necessarily in order of merit. 

(a) We require a good management tool that will minimize the 
problems involved in dealing with commercial fishermen as 
opposed to sportsmen and tourist outfitters. 

(b) If possible, we should try to help the commercial fisher- 
men with his problems. 

(c) In hot weather fish deteriorate rapidly in gill nets. A 
fishing technique that will permit "putting live fish on 
ice n will bring more money to the commercial fisherman 
with no greater poundage of fish removed from the lake. 

A trap net, if successful, is an obvious answer to this 
problem. 

(d) In windy weather, gill nets can not always be lifted. 
The result is a total loss of fish. Sometimes they are 
lifted at great risk of upsetting the boat. A trap net 
would not have to be lifted daily. 

(e) A trap net would be more economical than gill nets for 
a commercial fisherman to operate since he would not 
have to visit them every day. Time involved is less. 

(f) Saugers appear to be taking an important place in the 
lake ecology. A good control is indicated. 

On this basis a project was organized under the supervision 
of Mr. E. MacGillivray of Head Office to study the use of trap nets 
in Lake of the Woods. 

Methods and Equipment 

Four types of traps were used in this experiment to test 
the effectiveness of each type. It was kept in mind that commercial 
fishermen are not wealthy people and that equipment must not be too 
expensive. 

There were two sixteen foot downhaul traps. The first was 
made of 3" stretch mesh and the second of 2^" stretch mesh. Both 
had a 6" stretch mesh lead. There was one § ? spring trap and one 6 ? 
spring trap. The 8 ? trap was made of 2\ i% stretch mesh and the 6 V 
trap was made of 2" stretch mesh. The two smaller traps had 2^" 
mesh leads. The length of the lead varied with the set. 






- 53 - 

The traps were set to test the more important commercial 
fishing sites and information gathered from the local fishermen was 
extensively used in selecting sites. 

Commercial fishermen continued to operate their gill nets 
much as usual. Their returns were made available to us. For obvious 
reasons returns of individual fishermen cannot be reported. There- 
fore, their returns are grouped and averaged. 

Results 

The catch of fish is indicated in Table 1. As the summer 
progressed, the various traps were moved either once or twice. Trap 
A-lo ? downhaul with a 3" mesh was removed on June /+• It was "gilling" 
so many cisco, saugers. 

In setting up an experiment of this sort it is desirable to 
compare the effectiveness of various types of traps with each other 
and with the standard type of gear (gill nets) currently in use. 
This has been attempted but there are so many uncontrollable factors 
that no sound comparison seems to exist. Therefore, it seems best to 
try to draw some general conclusions. 

The. reasons for our inability to effectively compare results 
are as follows: 

(1) Gill nets were lifted daily. Traps varied from one to five 
days between lifts. 

(2) Fish from gill net catches were those taken by commercial 
fishermen. All fish were disposed of. In the case of 
trap nets the desirable fish (Yellow Pickerel and Northern 
Pike) were released and the undesirable were removed from 
the lake. Fish may have been recaptured several times. 

(3) To obtain a fair comparison it would be necessary to have 
all equipment set at the same place and at the same time. 
This is obviously impossible. 

(4) There is no standard of comparison between gill nets and 
trap nets. Should one trap with a 600 ? lead be compared to 
one gill net 600 * long set at the same site? The gill net 
reports are not set up in such a way that we can make a 
comparison e.g. if a man set 1$00 ? of net we do not know if 
he was visiting six locations or one. 

(5) Gill nets are easily relocated to follow the movements of 
fish. The traps used were seldom moved, although the 
smaller ones could easily be moved. 

The catch of fish for the various traps in their different 
locations is indicated in Table I. 

The sixteen foot, three inch mesh downhaul trap was taken 
out of use on June 14 because it was gilling so many cisco and 
saugers and small pickerel that it was felt that commercial fisher- 



- 54 - 

men would not use it. According to our results it was the most 
effective trap. We cannot be certain that this was due to greater 
efficiency in a 3" mesh crib or to location of the trap. It was 
probably a combination of these factors. 

In moving the traps from one location to another it is 
believed that some traps may have gained while others lost thereby 
tending to neutralize the effects of location. Table III combines 
the catch of traps eliminating the consideration of location. Each 
species caught is shown. 

Commercial fishermen are interested in some of these only. 

Cisco is not a marketable fish except for a few taken by 
mink ranchers at a very low price. The cisco are a nuisance to 
commercial fishermen in their nets. To the sportsmen it is a fish 
that should be removed. The larger traps were more efficient at 
cisco removal. 

Northern Pike is desirable to both sportsmen and commercial 
fishermen. None of the traps removed many. The difference in catch 
was more likely due to locations than efficiency. 

Yellow Pickerel are the most important commercial and game 
species in the south end of the lake. The two larger traps were the 
most effective in taking this species. 

Ling is probably a very important competitor with 
commercial and game species for both food and space. It is not a 
desirable fish. The large traps were much more effective in ling 
removal. 

Large perch have some commercial value and no sporting 
value in this area. The difference in various traps is probably 
more closely related to the locations of the sets than to the trap 
size. The largest and smallest average daily catch were taken by 
the two largest traps. 

Saugers are a good fish commercially and sportwiee. Since 
the introduction of sportfishing and commercial fishing their numbers 
have increased in the south end of the lake. It is probable that to 
some degree they are taking space and food formerly used by the more 
desirable yellow pickerel. The numbers taken were somewhat 
disappointing. The variation in numbers taken are likely due to trap 
size as indioated by the figures. 

A comparison of the effectiveness of traps and gill nets 
must be based on the period from June 1 to July 16 since commercial 
fishermen were not permitted to operate earlier. The sixteen foot 
trap with 3" mesh (Trap A) which was removed on June 4 is not 
considered.- Table III is a summary of this and reports on the more 
important fish only. 

The average daily lift per commercial fisherman was 96$ 
yards. It varied from 400 to 1800 yards per day per fisherman. We 
believe that one fisherman could very easily handle three 8 V traps 



- 55 - 

per day. Thus the work load would be something like one trap to 
about 400 i 100 yards of gill net per day under the conditions 
existing in the south end of Lake of the Woods. 

Examining Table III it would appear that 96S yards of gill 
net compared with to one each of the various traps was: 

(a) Gill nets were more effective in impounding cisco, northern 
pike, suckers and possibly ling. 

(b) Traps were more successful in capturing yellow pickerel, 
sauger and yellow perch. 

Conclusions 

(a) There were certain instrinsic weaknesses in our programme 
making it difficult to make the proper comparisons. 

(1) Yellow pickerel and northern pike should not have 
been returned to the water. 

(2) One days catch of each of the important species 
should have been weighed each week so that we 
could compare gill net and trap net catches. 

(3) Traps should have been moved more frequently so 
that various grounds could have been tested and so 
that location of sets was balanced between poor and 
good sets for any one species. 

(b) Much more study is needed before we can actually say whether 
traps should or should not be used in our warm water 
fisheries. (Plans are now being made to permit a few 
selected commercial fishermen to experiment with the traps 
under our supervision) . 

Suggestions For Continuing This Study 

(a) A few commercial fishermen in Lake of the tfoods and Rainy 
Lake should be granted permits under section 99 of the 
Special Fisheries Regulations. 

(b) They should supply information on prepared forms. The 
information should include numbers of all species captured. 
Average weight per fish of each species. Date of catch. 
Depth of water at crib. Map showing location of set. 

(c) All fish to be removed from the trap and either destroyed 
or sold. 

(d) The permittee should also set gill nets so that we will 
have a standard for comparison, 

(e) Some of the yellow pickerel were not legal in size. These 
should be considered separately on reports. 



- 56 - 



Suggestions For The Crow Lake Programme 

(a) It is undesirable to return captured fish to the water. 
However public relations considerations make it almost 
impossible to remove live lake trout from the lake. 
Therefore, all lake trout should be tagged or fin clipped 
before release so that their re-entry to the trap can be 
recorded. This is not a fully satisfactory treatment since 
we cannot tell what effect the returned fish will have on 
movements of new fish into the trapping area. In other 
words our statistics will not be dependable. 

(b) Gill nets should be set for comparative studies. In 
setting the nets depths etc. should be considered. 

(c) Traps should be moved more frequently than they were on the 
Lake of the Woods Programme. 

(d) Whitefish and lake trout should be tagged in early stages 
of the programme in a hope that we can learn something of 
fish numbers and fish movements. 

(e) Efforts should be made to obtain information about average 
weight of fish. 

(f) There should be some advance public relations work done 
amongst tourist outfitters. 



25.3.59. 



- 57 - 



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